6.11) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari?

Thanks to Andreas Koch for his earlier extensive work on RAMdisk versions.

This section attempts to list all commercial or hobbyist project upgrades
to the amount of (volatile) random access memory (RAM) installed in the 8-bit
Atari.

Devices that use non-volatile mass storage media would be listed elsewhere in
this FAQ list.

The 8-bit 6502 and ANTIC processors can directly address 64KiB distinct memory
locations, addressed 0-65535 or $0-$FFFF.  Any upgrade providing more total
system RAM than 64KiB must use a bank-selection scheme to allow a range of
logical memory addresses to refer to more than one range of physical memory
locations.

400/800 Memory Upgrades
-----------------------
As designed by Atari, RAM management in the 400/800 is accomplished in
hardware via the presence of up to three RAM Module boards in the 800, or a
single internal RAM board in the 400.  The 400 was designed to support up to
32KiB RAM; the 800 up to 48KiB RAM.  Of the remaining 16KiB of the total 64KiB
of 8-bit address space available to use with the 6502 and ANTIC, 8KiB is taken
up by the Operating System, 2KiB is occupied by the Math Pack, 2KiB is
occupied by hardware registers, and 4KiB was unused/reserved for future use.
Use of an 8KiB ROM cartridge limits the total available system RAM to 40KiB;
use of a 16KiB cartridge, or two 8KiB cartridges in an 800, limits the total
available system RAM to 32KiB.

800 Memory Module industrial design (case): Kevin P. McKinsey, James C. Asher

- 4KiB boards
  These make an additional 4KiB available to the computer in the 4KiB of
  memory address space (49152-53247 or $C000-$CFFF), unused by the 400/800
  hardware or Operating System, directly beyond the normal 48KiB RAM address
  space as intended for use by Atari.  These can be used with standard 8KiB,
  16KiB, 24KiB, 32KiB, 40KiB, or 48KiB RAM systems.  See also: 52KiB boards
   - Ramrod, by Newell Industries (800 personality board), 1982
   - MEM/EX, by Prairie Physics (800 personality board), 1983
   - Impossible!, by Computer Software Services (CSS) (400/800), 1984
      - 4K Static RAM-Pac board also sold separately by CSS
   - The Gap, by Computer Support (400/800), 1985
- 8KiB boards
  Boards may be used in any 800 RAM slot or in the 400 internal RAM slot.
   - Atari CX852 (remove board from case for installation inside the 400)
- 16KiB boards/upgrades
  Boards may be used in any 800 RAM slot or in the 400 internal RAM slot.
   - Atari CX853 (remove board from case for installation inside the 400)
   - JACC 16K (1980; first non-Atari memory expansion board)
   - Microtek Peripherals Corp./MPC Peripherals AT-16
   - Intec 16K
   - Tiny Tek 16K
   - Bontek 16K
   - Mosaic 8K to 16K RAM Expansion Kit (400)
- 32KiB boards/upgrades
  A 32KiB board, "properly" designed, may be used in 3 places: in the 400
  internal RAM slot, or in either of the first two RAM slots in the 800.  In
  the 800 a 32KiB board must be installed in combination with an 8KiB or
  16KiB board also in slot 1 or 2, or utilize another solution that taps both
  slots for the necessary chip select lines.
   - Axlon RamCram / RamPower 32 (400 or 800 middle RAM slot)
   - Mosaic 32K RAM Board (400 or 800 first two RAM slots)
      - Optional Companion Board for use in the 800 without another RAM board
      - Mosaic Expander is the same but shipped with 16KiB and sockets for
        16KiB RAM chips taken from a 16KiB board
      - Mosaic Adapter is the same but shipped with no memory but sockets for
        32KiB in RAM chips taken from two 16KiB boards.
   - Microtek Peripherals Corp./MPC Peripherals AT-32
     (400 or 800 middle RAM slot)
   - Intec 32K (400 or 800 first two RAM slots)(early release: 800 only)
   - Tiny Tek 32K (400 or 800)
   - Bit 3 32K Memory Plus (400 or 800 middle RAM slot)
   - Tech-Data (TD) 32K (400 or 800)
   - Calisto Computers 32K (400)
   - Austin Franklin 32K Austin Board (400 or 800 first two RAM slots)
      - Optional 32K Loopback for use without another RAM board
   - Bontek 32K (400 or 800)
   - High Country MicroSystems (HCMS) Ram-Page 32K (400 or 800)
   - Tara Computer Products Atari 32K RAM
   - HardStuff 32K RAM Board (400 or 800)
- 48KiB boards/upgrades
  If designed for the 400, these must modify the computer to support the S4
  and S5 RAM chip select lines and, for continued cartridge support, the RAM
  deselect lines RD4 and RD5 as all supported in the 800.  If designed for the
  800, these boards are used with no other RAM boards installed.  Also, these
  physically used 64KiB in DRAM chips because such designs were much simpler
  and less expensive than a design using chips actually totaling 48KiB.
   - Intec 48K (400)
   - Dynamic Technologies 48K Memory Expansion Kit (400)
   - Axlon RamCram Plus / RamPower 48 (400).  Two installation options:
      - 40KiB available, or 48KiB with supplied board in cartridge slot
         - No computer modification required
      - 48KiB available (requires computer modification)
   - Sar-An Computer Products (SCP) 48K (400)
   - Neotechnic Industries (NTI) 48K Ram Kit (400 or 800)
   - Micro Systems Exchange (MSX) 48K Upgrade Kit (400)
   - Austin Franklin 48K Austin Board (400 or 800)
      - Optional 48K Loopback card required for use in the 800
   - Mosaic 48K Ram Kit (400)
   - Maplin/Mapsoft 48K RAM card (400)
   - Calisto Computers 48K (400)
   - Essence Peripheral 48K
   - Polly Products 48400 (400)
   - Xtra HardWare XTRA48 (400 or 800)
   - Tara Computer Products 48K RAM for the Atari 400
   - A 48K Upgrade For Your 400, project by Claus Buchholz, MACE Newsletter,
     (Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts), 9/82
   - Atari 400 48K Memory Modification Instructions, by Gary A. Crowell with
     Steven P. Davies, (c)1983
   - Atari 48K RAM Expansion Kit (400) (June 1983)
- 52KiB boards/upgrades
  These have the same features/capabilities as 48KiB boards/upgrades but make
  an additional 4KiB available to the computer in the 4KiB of memory address
  space (49152-53247 or $C000-$CFFF), unused by the 400/800 hardware or
  Operating System, directly beyond the normal 48KiB RAM address range.  The
  result is 52KiB of continuous, non-banked RAM available while still running
  the standard 400/800 OS in memory as well.
   - Tiny Tek 48K/52K (400)
   - Newell 48/52K Ram Board (400 or 800)
   - Xtra HardWare XTRA52 (400 or 800)
- 64KiB and up boards/upgrades
  Surpassing the limit of 52KiB continuous RAM address space available in the
  400/800 requires a memory-banking scheme for using software-selectable
  memory banks that share a range of memory addresses within the normal 52KiB
  RAM address range.  Atari never offered such a solution, but several
  different third-party schemes emerged.
> "Axlon" bank-selection type
  Banks are 16KiB, visible at 16384-32767 ($4000-$7FFF).  Bank selection is
  controlled by writing a bank number to ANY address in the ranges 4032-4095
  ($0FC0-$0FFF) (mirror) OR 53184-53247 ($CFC0-$CFFF) (latter range
  recommended by Axlon; byte 53247 ($CFFF) used by popular convention).
  A value of 0 selects the main/normal bank, and values from 1 to 255 select
  an extended bank.  Scheme supports up to 4080KiB of banked RAM (255 banks of
  16KiB each) for a total system RAM potential of 4128KiB (4080KiB + 48KiB).
   - Axlon RamDisk / RamPower 128 (800 middle RAM slot)(1981)
     Provides 8 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 160KiB.
      - Toggle switch supports configuration as 128KiB or 16KiB for added
        software compatibility
      - Shipped with CREATE utility that modifies Atari DOS 2.0S into:
        Axlon RAMDisk MMS V1.0 (Memory Management System) (D4: RAMdisk)
      - 1st 3rd-party Axlon RAMdisk: ADS Integrater (1983)
         - Detailed elsewhere in this FAQ List (800 personality boards)
   - Newell Industries 128K RAM Upgrade for 800 (800 middle RAM slot)
     Provides 8 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 160KiB.
   - Crystal Computer Products (CCP) 256 K RAMCard (800 middle RAM slot)(1986)
     Provides 16 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 288KiB.   
      - Can be configured as 256KiB or 16KiB for added software compatibility,
        either via jumper pins or via optional hardware switch.
   - Super Products SuperRAM
     (256KiB piggyback board for 16KiB board in middle RAM slot)
     Provides 16 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 48KiB installed in the three RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 304KiB.
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 256K (800 middle RAM slot)(1986)
     Provides 16 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 288KiB.
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 512K (800 middle RAM slot)(1986)
     Provides 32 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 544KiB.
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 1Mb (800 middle RAM slot)(1986)
     Provides 64 16KiB banks of memory, one of which is available to the
     computer at a time as part of the normal RAM of up to 48KiB.  With a
     total of 32KiB installed in the other two RAM slots, the total system
     potential is 1056KiB.
   - Incognito, by Sebastian Bartkowicz (Candle'O'Sin), 2012
      - 1MiB Axlon compatible memory expansion for Colleen mode
      - Device detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list (800 personality boards)
> "Mosaic" bank-selection type
  Banks are 4KiB, visible at 49152-53247 or $C000-$CFFF.  Writes to 65472-
  65507 or $FFC0-$FFE3 enable specific banks (65472 or $FFC0 = bank 0, 65473
  or $FFC1 = bank 1, etc.).  Writes to 65280-65471 or $FF00-$FFBF, or to
  65508-65535 or $FFE4-$FFFF, disable all banks.  Scheme supports 36 banks,
  for a total system potential of 192KiB (48KiB + 36 banks of 4KiB).
   - Mosaic 64K Ram Select (400 or 800 any RAM slot) (400/800 version or early
     400-only version) (1982)
      - Single board provides 48KiB "hard-wired" plus 4 banks of 4KiB
        addressed directly beyond the normal 48KiB limit, for 52KiB of
        continuous memory available to the computer.
      - In the 800, may be used in combinations including two 16KiB boards,
        one 32KiB board, one 16KiB board and one 32KiB board, or with one or
        two additional Mosaic 64K Ram Select boards (total of 10 possible
        configurations).  Each 64K Ram Select allows the computer to see all
        the memory of the other boards, makes enough of its own memory
        available to the computer to reach the continuous RAM limit of 52K,
        and makes the rest of its memory available to the computer in banks of
        4KiB addressed directly beyond the normal 48KiB limit.  Total system
        potential with three 64K Ram Select boards is 192KiB (48KiB + 36 banks
        of 4KiB).
      - Cable Kit/Cable Connectors #1 required in 400 or with first 64K Ram
        Select in 800; Cable Kit/Cable Connectors #2 required with 2nd or 3rd
        64K Ram Select in 800; use of one 64K Ram board with one 32KiB board
        requires Companion Board in middle RAM slot in 800
      - 48K Boot Fix program included for compatibility with software written
        to treat more than 48KiB available as not enough memory available.
      - Software sold separately by Mosaic:
         - Handyman by Holiday Software (software utility package; routines
           reside in bank select RAM; useable with BASIC and Assembler Editor)
         - SuperDrive by Starship Enterprises (c)1983 H.V. Stacey (Stace)
            - GENVDOS installation program modifies Atari DOS 2.0S to support
              a Mosaic RAMdisk, and to support DUP.SYS and/or MEM.SAV residing
              on the RAMdisk.
            - Included with later 64K Ram Select units
> Neither Axlon nor Mosaic bank-selection type (but very similar to Axlon)
   - A 48K Upgrade For Your 400, project by Claus Buchholz, MACE Newsletter
     (Michigan Atari Computer Enthusiasts), 9/82, including "Suggestions for a
     64K Modification" ("MACE Mod")
     Provides one 16KiB bank of memory, bank-switched with the "middle" 16KiB
     of the 48KiB RAM, visible at 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF, for a system
     total of 64KiB RAM.  Write a 1 to a memory location between $D700 and
     $D7FF (55040 to 55295 decimal; byte 55295 ($D7FF) used by popular
     convention) to enable the banked memory; write a 0 to the same location
     to disable banked memory.
   - Atari 800 Plus 256K, project by David G. Byrd
     48KiB of normal user memory and 240KiB of "extended memory".  Uses the
     $4000-$7FFF banked region, with bank selection at $D7xx (byte 55295
     ($D7FF) used by popular convention).  Versions:
      - 1983 original (WHERE????)
      - July 1985 S.N.A.C.C. Newsletter (Southern Nevada Atari Computer Club)
      - Revision A - Oct 1985.
      - Computer Shopper magazine, Feb 1987
      - Rev: D, Ver. 1.6 (maybe this is the Computer Shopper version?)
     Used with GENEMDE by H.V. Stacey, to extend DOS 2.0S to produce EMDE/OS
     with 240KiB RAMdisk support.
   - Intec 64K (400)
      - Explicitly supported by later versions of MachDOS.
      - Seems rather likely this is a commericalized version of the 48K/64K
        MACE Mod by Claus Buchholz; can anyone confirm????
   - The WindHover Atari 400 SuperRam Modification project by Jay Torres and
     Jerry Rombert, a (1985?) clone of the 48K/64K MACE Mod by Claus Buchholz
   - The Windhover Project memory upgrades for the 800, by Jay Torres.
     96KiB/160KiB/288KiB version appeared in the Manitoba Atari Computer Club,
     October 1985; Windhover DOS sold separately.  Essentially the same as the
     Byrd upgrade.  WindHover 288K SuperRam version 1986
   - Atari 800 512K RAM Card, by Bob Hays
      - With batter backup
      - http://www.bobhays.com/atari512k.html
> Others, bank-selection type unknown (WHO CAN VERIFY?????)
   - High Country MicroSystems (HCMS) Ram-Page 64K (400 or 800)
      - "For the 800 provides up to 96KiB".
   - Xtra HardWare XTRA64 (400 or 800).
   - HardStuff 64K RAM Board (400 or 800)

XL/XE Memory Upgrades
---------------------
In Atari XL/XE computers, the available 64KiB of memory address space includes
48KiB of "main" RAM addresses (analogous to the 400/800 design maximum,
including 8KiB or 16KiB of address space occupied by any ROM cartridge
present), and there is an additional 14KiB RAM available in the same 14KiB of
address space as the 12KiB XL OS and the 2KiB Math Pack.  In the 130XE, there
are four "extra" 16KiB RAM banks that can be accessed using the "middle" 16KiB
of main memory address space (analogous to the middle RAM slot in the 800).
Memory location 54017 ($D301), known as PIA Port B or PORTB, is used by the
programmer to manage access to portions of built-in ROM and RAM that share
ranges of memory addresses:
  Bit  Meaning if value set to 1
  ---  -------------------------
  #0   OS ROM enabled / RAM disabled (16KiB, 49152-65535 or $C000-$FFFF,
       except 2KiB range of hardware addresses, 53248-55295 or $D000-$D7FF)
  #1   BASIC ROM disabled / RAM enabled (8KiB, 40960-49151 or $A000-$BFFF)
  #2   1200XL LED 1 off; 130XE bank selection least significant bit (LSB)
  #3   1200XL LED 2 off; 130XE bank selection most significant bit (MSB)
  #4   130XE CPU Bank /Enable (CBE) (1=disabled, 0=enabled)
       (16KiB, 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF)
  #5   130XE Video Bank /Enable (VBE) (1=disabled, 0=enabled)
       (16KiB, 16384-32767 or $4000-$7FFF)
  #6   XE System Console Missile Command disabled / RAM enabled
       (8KiB, 40960-49151 or $A000-$BFFF)
  #7   Self Test ROM disabled / RAM enabled (2KiB, 20480-22527 or $5000-$57FF)

XL/XE memory upgrades to more than 128KiB RAM use additional PORTB bits as
bank-selection bits, beyond the two (bits 2-3) used in the 130XE.  "True ANTIC
banking" describes the ability, as in the 130XE, for the 6502, ANTIC, both, or
neither, to access the currently-selected bank of "extra" memory, based on the
settings of PORTB bits 4-5 (CBE and VBE).

32KiB system total, for the 600XL
   - RC Systems AM2, plugs into the PBI, 1984
   - W.E.Electronics 16KiB, plugs into the PBI, 1985
      - Card could be upgraded from 16KiB to 32KiB
48KiB system total, for the 600XL
   - RC Systems AM1, plugs into the PBI, 1984
   - FirstWare (Mosaic) 48K Expander (internal), 1984
      - Expander Package Upgrade Kit upgrades 48K Expander to 64K
   - W.E.Electronics 32KiB, plugs into the PBI, 1985
64KiB system total, for the 600XL
   - Atari 1064, plugs into the PBI, 1984
      - Provides pass-through interface for additional PBI devices
      - Only 48KiB of 64KiB in DRAM chips is used; the computer's internal
        16KiB RAM remains enabled as well for 64KiB system total
   - MPP MicroRam 64K Memory Board, plugs into the PBI, 1984
   - RC Systems AM64, plugs into the PBI, 1984
   - FirstWare (Mosaic) 64K Expander (internal), 1984
   - W.E.Electronics 48KiB, plugs into the PBI, 1985
   - 600XL 64K Kit, by Computer Service Land (internal), 1986
   - 600XL to 64K RAMKit, by Computer Support, 1986
   - 600XL to 64K internal upgrade kit, York Computer Centre, 1987
   - Atari 600XL to 64K RAM project by Ken Sumrall, 1987
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 64K (16KiB to 64KiB internal), 1987
   - 64K Upgrade for 600XL project by Don Neff, February 1988 issue of
     Michigan Atari Magazine
128KiB system total (Atari 130XE standard)
  PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3
  2 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^2 = 4 16KiB memory banks.
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 128K (65XE 64KiB to 128KiB)
      - True ANTIC banking
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XE-GM1 (XEgs 64KiB to 128KiB) (1988)
      - True ANTIC banking
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XL to XE (800XL/600XL 64KiB to 128KiB)
      - True ANTIC banking ("including Extended Antic modes") (1989)
192KiB system total
  PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,6
  3 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^3 = 8 16KiB memory banks.
   - Compy-Shop 128K for 600XL
      - No separate ANTIC banking.  (Question: Is 6502/ANTIC banking
        simultaneous, or does ANTIC have no access to banked memory?????)
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 192K (130XE 128KiB to 192KiB), 1988-11-11
      - True ANTIC banking (?)
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XE-GM2 (XEgs 128KiB to 192KiB).  Upgrade
     for XEgs with IC's XE-GM1 128KiB upgrade already installed.
      - True ANTIC banking
256KiB system total
  4 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^4 = 16 16KiB memory banks, but
  there are only 12 "extra" banks available because these REPLACE the
  computer's main 64KiB RAM.
> "Newell" bank-selection type
   PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6 (only 12 banks available)
   PORTB Bit 5 use is inverted relative to the later "Rambo" type.
   - Newell Industries 256KXL for 800XL/1200XL, ANTIC 'E' required, 1985
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory
      - Main memory is protected from bank-selection.
      - Shipped with MYDOS 4.x
      - SCXM Sector Copier (1985) sold separately
      - 256KXL Mods published by Newell
         1. Allow 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banked memory access via PORTB bit 4
         2. Main memory can be bank-selected.
      - NOTE: After the RAMBO XL gained strong marketplace acceptance, the
        Newell 256KXL was replaced with the Newell 256KXLE, see below.
> "Rambo" bank-selection type
   PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6 (only 12 banks available)
   PORTB bit 5 use is inverted relative to the earlier "Newell" type.
   - 130XE-Compatible 800XL 256K Upgrade, project by Claus Buchholz
      - Revision of his "Quarter-Meg Atari 800XL" project, Byte 9/85, (which
        used 32KiB banks and was not 130XE-compatible)
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
      - Main memory can be bank-selected.
   - Ramaster, by ABC Consulting, for 800XL
      - Commercialized version of the Buchholz 130XE-Compatible 800XL 256K
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
      - Main memory can be bank-selected.
   - RAMBO XL by ICD, for 800XL or 1200XL, 1986
      - Commercialized version of upgrade of same name by Madison Area Atari
        Users Group (MAAUG) published Oct-Nov 1985, itself a close derivative
        of the Buchholz 130XE-Compatible 800XL 256K Upgrade.
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
      - Main memory can be bank-selected.
   - 800XE PLUS, by Triple "C" Computer, for 800XL or 1200XL, 1986
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
        "It's entirely compatible with the 130XE"
   - 256k RAM for 800XL, by Computer Support, 1986 (may be "Newell" type????)
      - "Includes Ramdisc software for all DOS systems"
      - "Full 130XE compatibility"
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 256K for 800XL or 1200XL, 1987
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XL (800XL 64KiB to 256KiB), 1987
      - True ANTIC banking (???? mc doubts it)
   - Yorky, design by Dave Malham for York Computer Centre (1987), then
     Richard Gore (1993), for 800XL or 64KiB 600XL
      - Plugs into the PBI
      - Uses the 600XL/800XL power supply; supplies power for the computer
      - 3-way switch: Off, 64K, or 256K
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
   - Wizztronics 256K for 800XL, c1990 (by Steve Cohen)
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
   - Newell 256KXLE, for 800XL/1200XL, c1991
      - NOTE: Replaced the earlier Newell 256KXL
      - True ANTIC banking
      - Shipped with MYDOS 4.5x and COPY256E sector copier
   - CSS Power Plus, 800XL or 65XE installation
      - True ANTIC banking
   - Atarimax 256k Memory Upgrade for 800XL and 1200XL
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
   - Reimaged Rambo XL 256k Memory Upgrade, by Bits of the Past, (2011?)
      - For 800XL or 1200XL
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
   - Reimaged Wizztronics 256k Memory Upgrade, by Bits of the Past, (2011?)
      - For 800XL
      - Separate versions for ANTIC C012296 or ANTIC C021697
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
   - SuperRAM, by Super Products, for 600XL/800XL
      - No soldering required
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
320KiB system total
  4 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^4 = 16 16KiB memory banks.
  These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM.
> "Atari magazin" bank-selection type
   Bank-selection is the same as the "Rambo" type but with 16 banks available.
   PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6
   - The 130XE/320K upgrade by Scott Peterson, 1985
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
      - Credits the 800/288K upgrade (D.G.Byrd) and the 800XL/256K upgrade
        (C.Buchholz) for inspiration
   - The Windhover SuperRam 130XE Upgrade, by Jay Torres/The Windhover Project
      - Published in the Windhover Newsletter 1985
      - Clone of the 130XE/320K Upgrade project by Scott Peterson
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
   - The 65XE 130XE/320K Upgrade! by Scott Peterson (for the 65XE), 1986
      - 100% compatible with the previous 130XE/320K upgrade by Scott Peterson
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 320K for 130XE, 1987
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + XE (130XE 128KiB to 320KiB), 1987
      - True ANTIC banking (?)
   - Atari magazin "320 KByte im Eigenbau" for 800XL, by Rolf Schmidtke,
     issue 1987n2p56; bugfixes/updates 1987n3p54, 1988n4p62, 1988n5p86
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 320K (65XE 64KiB to 320KiB)
      - True ANTIC banking
   - CSS Power Plus, 130XE installation
      - True ANTIC banking
   - RAM 320XL, by ctirad, for 600XL/800XL, 2010
      - Plugs into the PBI
      - Standard mode ADDS 256KiB of expansion memory.  This gives a 16KiB
        600XL 272KiB system total, while a 64KiB 800XL has 320KiB system
        total.
      - Remapped base RAM mode DISABLES internal RAM, makes 64KiB main memory
        available from the RAM 320XL device, for 320KiB total
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
      - http://atariage.com/forums/topic/162420-ram-320xl/
   - SuperRAM, by Super Products, for 130XE
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
> "Compy-Shop" bank-selection type
   PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,6,7
   - Compy-Shop 256K, versions for 800XL or 130XE (versions for any others?)
      - True ANTIC banking
   - Megaram XL/XE (Version 1, Version 2, or Version 3 256KiB installation),
     by Klaus Peters, for 800XL, 800XE, 65XE, 130XE, or XE System Console.
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
      - Fixes for refresh errors:
        http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/doku/BugFix/bugfix.html
> Multiple bank-selection types supported
   - 256 kByte im 800XL project by Bernhard Pahl
      - Two modes: Atari magazin and Compy-Shop
      - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/800xl_1/800xl_1.html
   - 256 kByte im 800XLF / 65XE / 800XE / XEGS project by Bernhard Pahl
      - Two modes: Atari magazin and Compy-Shop
      - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/800xe_1/800xe_1.html
   - 256 kByte im 130XE project by Bernhard Pahl
      - Two modes: Atari magazin and Compy-Shop
      - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/130xe_1/130xe_1.html
   - RAM-Erweiterung 256kB fur 130XE, by Heuser Family (2005).  Two modes:
      - Rambo/Atari magazin mode with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - Compy-Shop mode with true ANTIC banking
      - http://www.asselheim.de
512KiB system total
  5 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^5 = 32 16KiB memory banks, but
  there are only 28 "extra" banks available because the computer's main 64KiB
  RAM has been REPLACED.
   - 512K Atari 800XL/1200XL V1.1, by Dan Schmidt.  For computers that
     already have a 256K RAMBO XL or Claus Buchholz upgrade installed.
      - NOTE: The original non-V1.1 version does not work!
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,7
      - 6502/ANTIC banking is simultaneous only, controlled by PORTB bit 4
576KiB system total
  5 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^5 = 32 16KiB memory banks.
  These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM.
   - Irata Verlag 512K RAM 800XL RAMFloppy plugs into the 800XL PBI (1986)
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,???
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
      - Sold separately: 512K RAM BetriebsSystem Chip for 800XL + RAMFloppy
   - The 130XE/576K upgrade, by Scott Peterson. (1986)  Two modes:
      - 576KiB mode: PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6
         - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
         - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. 
      - 130XE mode: 192KiB RAM, PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,6
         - "100% compatible 130XE"
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 576K for 130XE (1987)
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,7
      - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. 
   - Innovative Concepts Ramdrive + 576K (130XE 320KiB to 576KiB), 1987
      - Upgrade for 130XE with IC's 130XE 320KiB upgrade already installed.
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,5,6,???
      - True ANTIC banking (?)
   - 512 kByte im 800XL / 800XE project by Bernhard Pahl
      - Two modes: Atari magazin and Compy-Shop
      - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/800xl_2/800xl_2.html
   - 512 kByte im 130XE project by Bernhard Pahl
      - Two modes: Atari magazin and Compy-Shop
      - http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/130xe_2/130xe_2.html
   - 512k SRam Extended Memory for XL/XE, project by Bernd Herale (BigBen) and
     Wolfram Fischer.  (2007?)  Internal upgrade with four modes:
      - 512KiB using PORTB bits 2,3,5,6,7; 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - 256KiB Compy-Shop mode with true ANTIC banking
      - 256KiB Rambo (Atari magazin) and 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - Extended RAM off
      - http://www.abbuc.de/~bernd/selfmade-hardware/512k-memory-extension/
   - 512k SRAM extension for Atari XL/XE, project by Matthias Reichl, v1.3,
     (2006-2010), and Wolfram Fischer.  Internal upgrade with four modes:
      - 0KiB / off
      - 256KiB Compy-Shop with true ANTIC banking
      - 256KiB Rambo/Atari magazin with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - 512KiB using PORTB bits 2,3,5,6,7; 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - http://www.horus.com/~hias/atari/#sram512k
      - http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/512K/512k.html
   - RAM 320XE/576, by ctirad, for 130XE/800XE/65XE with ECI, 2014
      - Plugs into Cartridge+ECI
         - All cards have a cartridge pass-through connector
         - Optionally, the ECI port pass-through connector can be added
      - Supports four RAM configurations:
         - 128KiB 130XE, 320KiB Rambo, 320KiB Compy-Shop, 576KiB Rambo
      - 130XE and 320KiB Compy-Shop modes with true ANTIC banking
      - http://atariage.com/forums/topic/232856-ram320xe576-order-thread/
1088KiB system total
  6 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^6 = 64 16KiB memory banks.
  These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM.
   - Scott Peterson 1088XE project for the 130XE
      - April 1986 (initial release); Version 2.0(This one works!) June 1986
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7
      - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
      - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory. 
   - Magna Systems Ramcharger 1088K for 130XE. (1987)
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7
      - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
      - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
   - Newell 1 Meg XL for 800XL/1200XL (1990)
      - Installation Method 1: (1088KiB accessible RAM)
         - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7
         - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
         - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
         - True ANTIC banking
      - Installation Method 2: (1072KiB accessible RAM)
         - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 2,3,4,5,6,7
         - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
         - 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banked memory access is ALWAYS enabled;
           16KiB of main memory is not accessible
      - Installation Method 3: (1072KiB accessible RAM)
         - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 0,1,2,3,5,6
         - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
         - True ANTIC banking
         - 16KiB RAM under the Operating System is not accessible
      - Shipped with MYDOS 4.50 M1 and M1Copy Sector Copier, both for use with
        Method 1 installation
   - Newell Meg XL for 800XL/1200XL (1991), Meg 65 for 65XE (1991), or Meg 130
     for 130XE (1991), 1MiB installations
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 1,2,3,5,6,7
      - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
      - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
         - Installation option: Toggle switch to select internal BASIC
      - True ANTIC banking
      - Shipped with MYDOS 4.50 M1 and M1Copy Sector Copier
   - Megaram XL/XE (Version 3 1024KiB installation, Super-Megaram), by Klaus
     Peters, for 800XL, 800XE, 65XE, 130XE, or XE System Console
      - Bank-selection bits: PIA Port B bits 2,3,6,7 and memory location 54784
        ($D600) bits 0,1
      - ANTIC has no access to banked memory.
      - Fixes for refresh errors:
        http://www.b-pahl.de/atari8bit/RAM-Disk/doku/BugFix/bugfix.html
   - Satantronic 1MB SIMM RAM expansion project for 800XL, 800XE, 130XE, XEgs,
     by Dodo (Jozef Friedmansky).  (2002)
     Internal upgrade, with or without switches, with or without GAL chip. 
      - 1MiB mode uses PORTB bits 1,2,3,5,6,7
      - 256KiB Compy-Shop mode
      - 256KiB Rambo/Atari magazin mode
      - 64KiB 130XE mode
      - http://satantronic.atari.sk/?str=xe_1mbram
   - 1024 kByte im 800XL project by Bernhard Pahl
      - PORTB bits: 1,2,3,5,6,7
      - Two modes: 1024KiB without BASIC, or 512KiB with BASIC
   - 1MiB SIMM project for 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE, by Pasiu/SSG.  (2004?)
     Internal upgrade works in two modes:
      - 512KiB Compy-Shop with true ANTIC banking
      - 1024KiB with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - http://hardware.atari8.info/simm.php
   - mega-mem 1024KB for 800XL, 800XE/65XE, 130XE, 1200XL, by Matthias Reichl
     and Wolfram Fischer, 2009.  Internal upgrade with 8 modes:
      - 0KiB (off)
      - 64KiB 130XE compatible (true ANTIC banking?)
      - 128KiB (true ANTIC banking?)
      - 256KiB Compy-Shop compatible (true ANTIC banking?)
      - 256KiB Rambo or Atari magazin and 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - 512KiB with ANTIC access (simultaneous only?)
      - 512KiB without ANTIC access
      - 1024KiB (built-in BASIC not available) (no ANTIC banking?)
      - http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/1024K/1mb.html 
   - Ultimate1MB, by Sebastian Bartkowicz (Candle'O'Sin), for 65XE/130XE or
     800XL/600XL/1200XL, 2011.  Internal upgrade with 4 modes:
      - disabled
      - 320KiB "Rambo" (Atari magazin) with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - 578KiB "Compy-Shop" with true ANTIC banking
      - 1088KiB "Rambo" with 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banking
      - Also includes 4 flashable OS ROM slots
      - http://spiflash.org/node/14
      - Ultimate 1MB Revised 2k14 available from Lotharek:
        http://lotharek.pl/product.php?pid=67
4MiB system total
  8 bank-selection bits allows selection of 2^8 = 256 16KiB memory banks.
  These ADD to the computer's main 64KiB RAM.
   - Newell Meg XL for 800XL/1200XL (1991), Meg 65 for 65XE (1991), or Meg 130
     for 130XE (1991), 4MiB installations (4064KiB accessible RAM)
      - PIA Port B bank-selection bits used: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
      - Self Test is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 7)
      - Internal BASIC is lost via software control (PIA Port B bit 1)
         - Installation option: Toggle switch to select internal BASIC
      - 6502/ANTIC simultaneous banked memory access is ALWAYS enabled;
        16KiB of main memory is not accessible
      - 16KiB RAM under the Operating System is not accessible
         - Installation option makes RAM under the OS available, but only
           usable if OS is first moved to RAM
      - Shipped with MYDOS 4.50 M1 and M1Copy Sector Copier
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