3.1.1) What are the Atari 410, 1010, XC11, & XC12 Program Recorders?

An Atari Program Recorder resembles an ordinary audio cassette tape player,
providing secondary (not directly accessible by the computer's central
processing unit) and offline (removable from the computer) magnetic storage
and retrieval of digital data, using a standard (analog) compact cassette.

While the computer converts digital serial data into analog audio tones for
recording/saving directly to cassette, the program recorder contains analog to
digital circuitry for converting analog audio tones to digital serial data
when playing/reading from cassette.

In addition to the digital information track, the program recorder can also
play back an audio track, allowing the computer user to both load/run programs
and listen to voice or music.

Under the Atari Operating System, the digital storage capacity of a 60-minute
cassette is about 102,400 bytes (100KiB).  The Atari OS writes files in fixed-
length blocks at 600 baud (physical bits/second).

Atari program recorders use SIO Motor Control; only one such device can be
attached to the system at a time.

Specifications common to all Atari program recorders:
  - Tape structure is standard 1/4 track stereo format:
     - 4 tracks, divided into 2 channels/sides ("Side A" and "Side B")
     - Each tape channel/side is stereo, consisting of 2 tracks:
        - Left / Audio track
        - Right / Digital track (audio frequency-shift keying (AFSK))
  - Digital track consists of two tones: "mark" = 5327 Hz ; "space" = 3995 Hz
  - Automatic/software motor control: the computer can control tape motion
    start/stop (both play and record functions), if the recorder PLAY button
    has already been pressed by the user.
  - Tape speed: 1.875 IPS (inches per second)
  - 3-digit tape counter
  - Any audio track plays through the television/monitor speaker, by way of
    the computer's audio output.
  - Preset volume levels (both playback and recording)
  - Media used is the Philips Compact Cassette or equivalent, containing
    Type I / ferric oxide / normal bias cassette tape.
    (Atari-brand CX4100 blank cassette tapes never shipped.)
     - Type II ("chrome") or Type IV ("metal") cassette tapes are not used
       with Atari program recorders.  See: http://preview.tinyurl.com/jgbm9p7
  - Cassettes can play/record on both sides -- cassette must be removed,
    flipped-over, and re-inserted to access the reverse channel/side of the
    tape.
  - Cassette write protect notch status is respected -- will not write to a
    cassette side missing the write protect notch corresponding to that side
    of the cassette.
  - The cassette utilization/filesystem is controlled entirely by software,
    normally the C: Cassette Handler of the Atari Operating System.
    Specifications are provided elsewhere in this FAQ list.
  - Only one program recorder can be operated on the Atari SIO bus.

410 Program Recorder
  - Shipped with the earliest (1979-1980) 800 computer systems
  - Was also included in the kit: CX482 The Educator
  - Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
  - Produced 1979-1983.  Replaced by the 1010.
  - Manuals:
    - Atari 410 Program Recorder Operator's Manual C014810 (CO14810)
      (shipped with earlier units)
    - Atari 410 Program Recorder Owner's Guide C060055 (CO60055)
      (shipped with later units; USA or International (Holland) printings)
    - Atari 410 Program Cassette Recorder Field Service Manual FD100004
    - Atari 410 Program Cassette Recorder Field Service Manual PAL-UK FD100005
  - 3 main versions, each with two different variations:
    1) Unreleased prototype 410 version
       - Small/narrow profile
       - Chrome carrying handle
       - "Atari 410" label between cassette bay door and buttons
       - Above cassette bay door, left to right:
         Atari logo, tape counter, "Program Recorder"
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         Rewind, REC, Play, Advance, Stop, Eject
       - Two unreleased prototype version variations:
          1a) Buttons are black, except red REC button
              See: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/intro400.htm
              and: http://mcurrent.name/atariads/intro800.htm
          2a) Buttons are white with black borders
              See: http://www.rhod.fr/images_periph/410/410proto.jpg
    2) Made in Japan by Bigston (initial production version)
       - Carrying handle
       - "Atari 410" label between cassette bay door and buttons
       - Tape counter also between cassette bay door and buttons
       - 5 Buttons, left to right:
         Record (red label), Rewind, Play, Advance, Stop/Eject
       - Two Japan 410 version variations:
          2a) 120V Made in Japan version
              Power: plugs directly into wall (120V AC, 6W)
          2b) 220V/240V (Direct Current) Made in Japan version
              Power jack on the RIGHT side of the unit.  Center positive.
              Power: Used with an external DC power supply rated for 6.0V DC
              and 300mA, such as the Tadmod 6498 or Atari AC/DC Adapter Type
              FW3199 (both detailed elsewhere in the FAQ list) or equivalent.
    3) Made in Hong Kong by Transtek or by Chelco Sound (Hong Kong) Limited
       - No carrying handle
       - "Atari 410" label on cassette bay door
       - Tape counter above cassette bay door
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         REC, Play, Rewind, Advance, Stop/Ej., Pause
       - Two Hong Kong 410 version variations:
          3a) 120V 60Hz 7 watts Made in Hong Kong version
              Power: plugs directly into wall (120V AC, 6W)
          3b) 220V/240V (Direct Current) Made in Hong Kong version
              Power jack on the BACK of the unit.  Center positive.
              Power: Used with an external DC power supply rated for 6.0V DC
              and 300mA, such as the Tadmod 6498 or Atari AC/DC Adapter Type
              FW3199 (both detailed elsewhere in the FAQ list) or equivalent.
  - C015705 REV3 Atari sales flyer reads: "Two styles of the Atari 410
    Program Recorder are currently manufactured, with equivalent performance."
    This refers to versions #2 and #3 above.

1010 Program Recorder
  - Produced from 1983-1985.  Replaced the 410; replaced by the XC11.
  - Also included in the kit: KX7114 Programming System All-In-One-Pak
  - 2 Atari SIO ports for direct connection to Atari computers
  - Included: Owner's guide, Atari SIO cable, power adapter
  - Manuals:
     - The Atari 1010 Program Recorder Owner's Guide C061133
     - Atari 1010 Cassette Recorder Field Service Manual FD100223
        - Rev. 02 April 1983
        - Rev. 02 September 1983
  - Two slightly different versions were manufactured:
     - 1010S.  FCC ID: BPA99H1010
       - Made in Japan by Sanyo
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         Record, Play, Rewind, Advnce, Pause, Stop/Ej
       - Orange sticker inside cassette bay
     - 1010C.  FCC ID: BPA7YJ1010
       - Made by Chelco Sound (Hong Kong) Limited
       - 6 Buttons, left to right:
         Record, Play, Rewind, Advnce, Stop/Ej, Pause
       - Silver sticker inside cassette bay
  - Power: Used with an external 8.5 to 9 volt AC transformer power supply
    rated for at least 8 watts.  Shipped with Atari C061515 or C061516;
    CA017964 recommended (each detailed elsewhere in this FAQ list).
  - In early production units the power indicator lights as soon as the
    power adapter is plugged in.  In later models the power indicator will
    only light after you press Play, Rewind or Advance.

XC11 Program Recorder
  - Announced at the Jan. 1986 CES.  Replaced the 1010; replaced by the XC12
  - Advertised in the UK from late fall 1985 through summer 1986 (Atari User)
  - "Not released in the U.S." --Best Electronics Rev.10 catalog p. 140
  - Has a built-in SIO cable and one free SIO port
  - Power: Drawn from SIO pin 10 (+5V/Ready)

XC12 Program Recorder
  - Shipped in mid-1986, replacing the short-lived XC11
  - Introduced to the U.S. at the January 1987 CES (reported as the XC11)
  - "had a very limited release in the U.S., mainly shipped to the European
    market place" --Best Electronics Rev.10 catalog p.140
  - Also included in the kits:
     - Atari 65XE Home Computer Outfit (Dixons/Currys special offer)
     - 130XE Starter Pack (UK)
     - XE 2012 (France)
  - "Round" window
  - Based on the Phonemark PM-4401A
     - Printed circuit board is marked "PM4401-4"
  - Built-in SIO cable - must end SIO daisy chain
  - Power: Drawn from SIO pin 10 (+5V/Ready)
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