7.5) What should I know about R: and T: modem device handlers?

The Atari computer Operating System does not provide a modem device handler.
Modems can be connected to the Atari in several different physical ways: via
an 850 interface or equivalent, via a joystick/controller port, or via the SIO
port.  For each way a modem can be connected to the Atari, application
software code specific to that type of modem must be utilized by the computer
to communicate with the modem. 

Some Atari programs, especially commercial telecommunications programs, simply
support one or several specific modem types, incorporating the necessary
modem-specific software routines internally.

Some programs, especially earlier public domain/freeware/shareware programs,
were released in several versions, each dedicated to a particular modem or
modem type.

Finally, as multiple modem types gained popularity, public domain/freeware/
shareware authors started abstracting the modem device handling software
routine from the rest of their telecommunication programs, allowing for a
single version of the main program to work with one or more separately-
distributed modem handler routines.  Users were then expected to combine an
application with an appropriate modem handler in order to create a complete,
working telecommunications software package.

This section attempts to list all Atari modem device handler files that can be
used in combination with telecommunications programs requiring such a handler.

==> R: modem device handler on 850 interface ROM

The 850 contains an R: handler, supporting devices R1: through R4:, in its
ROM.  This R: handler supports the full range of capabilities of the RS-232-C
serial interface ports provided by the 850, but is typically used with an RS-
232-C serial interface modem.

With no powered disk drive #1 present, the R: handler loads from the ROM of a
powered 850 into computer RAM on system startup.  An extended beep is emitted
through the computer's audio signal as the handler is loaded.

The R: handler can also be loaded from 850 ROM into computer RAM as part of a
system Disk Boot or afterward by running a brief software utility for that
purpose.  Such utilities include:
- AUTORUN.SYS, distributed with Atari DOS 2.0S (1980)
- RS232.COM, distributed with OS/A+ and DOS XL by OSS (1982-1984)
- RS232FIX.COM, distributed with DOS XL by OSS (1982-1984).
  Explicitly attempts to correct some of the known bugs in the 850 R: handler.
- HANDLERS.SYS, distributed with Atari DOS 3 (1983)
- RS232.ARx, distributed with SmartDOS by Rana Systems (1984)
   - Should be renamed RS232.AR1 to be autorun by SmartDOS
   - Supports both warm and cold re-boots of the system
- AUTORUN.SYS, as generated by the Atari DOS 2.5 SETUP.COM utility (1984)
- RS232.COM for SpartaDOS, distributed with ICD SpartaDOS and with the ICD
  P:R: Connection (1986)
- RS232.SYS for Atari DOS 2, distributed with the ICD P:R: Connection (1986)
- BOOT850.COM, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5 by Trent Dudley (1987)
- RDRIVER.SYS, distributed with Atari DOS XE (1988)
- ATARI850.AUT, distributed with MYDOS 4.50
- X850.COM, distributed with ANSITERM by Robert Sinclair (1992)
- PR.COM, distributed with ANSITERM by Robert Sinclair (1992)
- RS232.COM, part of RealDOS
- RS232.COM, part of SpartaDOS X

Special to the P:R: Connection (popular 850 workalike):
- PRC.SYS is an R: handler "translator" distributed with the P:R: Connection
  by ICD (1986).  Allows some telecommunications programs (such as HomePak
  HomeTerm) with integrated support for 850-based modems, but that do not load
  or use the internal 850 R: handler, to work with the P:R: Connection.

==> R: modem device handlers for MPP-1000/1000C/1000E and Supra 300AT modems
- MPPHAND.AUT, Version 1.0, by John S. DeMar, 1983(?)
  'Smartmodem and "R:" Device Emulator, for the MPP-1000C Modem'
- MPP 1000C Modem/850 Emulator by Jordan Chilcott.  Three versions:
   - MPP850.DRV -- MPP Modem Driver Rev. 1.0 (c) 1984 Jordan L. Chilcott,
     Standard version tested with: AMODEM, AMIS, FORUM.  (alias MDRIVE.XMO)
   - SMARTMPP.DRV -- MPP Modem Driver Rev. 1.0S (c) 1984 Jordan L. Chilcott
     Also supports "Smartmodem" features of MPP modems.  (alias SMDRV.XMO)
   - HOMEMPP.DRV -- MPP Modem Driver Rev. 1.0H (c) 1985 Jordan L. Chilcott
     For use with HomePak HomeTerm.  (aliases HMDRVE.XMO, HMDRV.XMO)
- MPPHNDLR.COM, by Trent Dudley, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987.
  "I have rewritten this MPP R: handler to make its relocation routine
  compatible with SpartaDOS."
- MPP850.HAN, by James Dillow (author of DeTerm MPP), 1988.
- MPP.COM, by Bob Puff, modified version of MPP850.HAN by James Dillow,
  distributed with BobTerm 1.10 (6/89), 1.20 (4/1990), & 1.21 (4/27/1990)

==> T: modem device handler on 1030 modem ROM

In addition to the ModemLink software program, the 1030 modem ROM also
contains the T: modem device handler that can be loaded and utilized by user
programs apart from ModemLink.

The T: device handler does not use the SIO protocol for data transmission with
the computer, creating potential conflict with other devices connected via
SIO that also don't use the SIO protocol, including the C: cassette handler
built into the Atari OS.  Consequently, there should be no program recorder
attached to the system when using a T: modem device handler.

The handler supports tone dialing, but is not self-relocating, and thus must
be loaded before Atari BASIC is initialized.  Extensive T: handler details
published by Russ Wetmore: http://www.atarimagazines.com/v4n4/1030modem.html

Utilities to load the T: handler from the 1030 ROM include:
- AUTO1030.SYS, by Russ Wetmore for Antic, August 1985 (alias THANDLR1.030)
- BOOT1030.COM, by Trent Dudley, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987

==> T: modem device handlers for both 835/1030/XM301 and 850-based modems

- '835/850 Handler' (alias AUTO1030.OBJ) by AMODEM author Jim Steinbrecher,
  distributed with his Atari MODEM-835/850 Ver. 4.2, 01-15-84
- TSHANDL.OBJ, by Ken Fowkes, is the T: handler code extracted from his
  DiskLink program (1984).

==> T: modem device handlers for the 835/1030/XM301 modems

- HANDLER.OBJ, by Atari, distributed with the XM301 modem on the XE Term disk.
  A slight superset of the 1030 ROM T: handler; it too supports tone dialing
  but is likewise not self-relocating.  Shipped fall 1985.
- THANDLER.COM, by Trent Dudley, distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987.
  A self-relocating version of the Atari XE Term T: handler.

==> R: modem device handlers for both 850-based and 835/1030/XM301 modems

- R.BIN, by Joe Miller and Russ Wetmore for Star Systems Software, 1984/5(?)
  "A combined handler for 850-based and 835/1030 modems...an extensive
   modification of Joe Miller's original handler from his...TSCOPE.  While
   TSCOPE uses a "T:" handler (standard for 835/1030 modems), R.BIN is
   installed as an "R:" device."  Self-relocating.  Does not support tone
   dialing on the 1030.
- RHANDLR1.030 is identical to R.BIN but also executes RUN "D:MENU" after
  loading (perhaps for a disk of the month for an Atari user group).
- 'RHANDLER2' (RHANDLR2 or RHAND2.BIN or RHAND2.AUT) is a slightly modified
  version of R.BIN which also executes the BASIC command RUN"D:*.RUN" after
  loading.
- RHAN1030.AUT and RHAND3.BIN are two different derivatives of 'RHANDLER2'
  where the provision to RUN"D:*.RUN" after loading has been removed.
- ATARISRS.232, by JM/RW, is the R.BIN driver code extracted from
  VT-10-Squared, and then distributed with OmniCom, 1986-1987
- RBIN1030.BIN / RHANDLER.COM / R1030.XMO, by JM/RW/MG, are derivatives of
  ATARISRS.232, possibly/probably modified for SpartaDOS compatibility by
  Mike Gustafson.  Distributed with AMODEM 7.4 and 7.5, 1987

==> R: modem device handlers for the 835/1030/XM301 modems

- SMARTT.COM, V7.14.86 by Joe Hitchens (author of VTERM)
- HANDLER.XM, by James Dillow (author of DeTerm XM301) (1988?)
- XM850.HAN, by James Dillow, based on his HANDLER.XM (1988?)
- XM.COM, by Bob Puff, modified version of XM850.HAN by James Dillow,
  distributed with BobTerm 1.10, 6/1989
- XM.COM (re-written), by Bob Puff, distributed with BobTerm 1.20 (4/1990)
  and 1.21 (4/27/1990)

==> R: modem device handlers for the R-Verter/SupraVerter Modem Adapter (SIO)

Note that handlers designed for the Atari SX212 modem via SIO may also work
with the R-Verter/SupraVerter.

- The A.I.D. R-Verter was distributed with 4 different R: handler versions,
  originally written by Royce W. Powell, (c) April, 1984 by A.I.D.:
   - RHAND1.OBJ  - R: handler supporting DSR & RD
      - nearly identical: RVDOSXL.COM (version for DOS XL?)
   - RHAND1C.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & CD
   - RHAND2.OBJ  - R: handler supporting DSR & RD and translation tables
   - RHAND2C.OBJ - R: handler supporting DSR & CD and translation tables
- RVHAND.XMO or RVHAND.OBJ, by Ron Hodges, for use with HomePak HomeTerm.
  A re-assembly of the file RHAND1C.SRC supplied with the R-Verter, but
  starting at a lower address ($1D00).
- BOB-Verter 2.4 Fast Handler (RVERTER.COM), by Robert Puff, 10/16/89.
  Explicitly supports both the SX212 modem (via SIO) and the R-Verter/
  SupraVerter interface cable.  Distributed with BobTerm 1.20 & 1.21

==> R: modem device handlers for the Datatari interface cable

- BTDATARI.COM, by ABBUC ev, specifically for use with BobTerm

==> R: modem device handlers for the SX212 modem connected via SIO

Note that handlers designed for the Atari SX212 modem via SIO may also work
with the R-Verter/SupraVerter.

- The SX-212 Companion!, by Marc Ingle and Tom Neitzel of S*P*A*C*E,
  based on the R-Verter R: handler, specifically to bring SX212 support to
  850 Express! version 3.00p by Keith Ledbetter.  Modifications by Tom Neitzel
  and Marc Ingle.  December, 1987.  Two versions:
   - LOADER.LOW (aliases: SX212A or SX212A.COM)
     This version loads at $1D00 and works with most DOSes in their standard
     configuration (generally 2 or 3 drives, with a LOMEM of $1D00 or lower).
   - LOADER.HI (alias: SX212A.HI)
     This version loads at $2000 and allows more memory for drive buffers
     but will reduce your terminal buffer by about 750 bytes.
- SX_RHAND.COM, author/distribution unknown
- SX212HND.COM (alias SX212HND.OBJ), SX212 R: Handler V1.0 by Trent Dudley,
  1987?
- HANDLER.OBJ, by Paul Swanson, distributed with Atari SX Express!, 1988
- SX212 ATH handler (SX212ATH.COM), by James Dillow (author of DeTerm SX212),
  1988.  (Distributed with AtariLink BBS.)
   - SX.COM is a modified version by Bob Puff, distributed with BobTerm 1.10,
     6/1989
- BOB-Verter 2.4 Fast Handler (RVERTER.COM), by Robert Puff, 10/16/89.
  Explicitly supports both the SX212 modem (via SIO) and the R-Verter/
  SupraVerter interface cable.  Distributed with BobTerm 1.20 & 1.21
- SX.COM, by Robert Sinclair, distributed with ANSITERM, 1992

==> R: modem device handlers for the ATR8000 interface by SWP

- MYDOS 3.1x versions have an integrated ATR8000 R: handler
- MYDOS 4.50 includes:
   - ATR232.AUT - RS-232 driver for the ATR8000
   - ATR232HD.AUT - RS-232 driver for ATR8000 with ATR hard disk interface
- SpartaDOS from ICD (disk versions) shipped with an R: handler for the
  ATR8000 called: AT_RS232

==> R: modem device handlers for the Multi I/O board (MIO) by ICD

The MIO includes its own 850 R: handler emulator in ROM, which does not need
to be loaded into computer RAM in order to function.  Depending on the ROM
version, this handler may or may not fully support the hardware flow control
capability of the MIO hardware.

- HYPERSPD.MIO HyperSpeed RS-232 accelerator Version 1.3a for Multi I/O,
  Copyright 1995, 1997 by Lenard R. Spencer.  Full 19200-bit throughput
  with hardware flow control.

==> R: modem device handlers for the Black Box interface by CSS

The Black Box includes its own 850 R: handler emulator in ROM, which does not
need to be loaded into computer RAM in order to function.  This handler
supports the hardware flow control capability of the Black Box.

- HYPERSPD.BB HyperSpeed RS-232 accelerator Version 1.3a for Black Box,
  Copyright 1995, 1997 by Lenard R. Spencer.  Full 19200-bit throughput with
  hardware flow control.
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