3.2.2) What is the Atari 1050 Disk Drive?

Portions of this section developed by Laurent Delsarte from the 1050 Field
Service Manual.

The Atari 1050 disk drive was introduced in June 1983 as a replacement for
the 810 disk drive.  The 1050 is fully backward compatible with the 810, with
the addition of a new "double density" mode of operation offering 130KiB of
data storage per diskette.  The "double density" mode works with a standard
(of its time) 5.25 inch soft-sectored diskette ("floppy disk") which is
certified for double density (Modified Frequency Modulation encoding method)
use.

While Atari called the new 1050 mode "double density", the 1050 is not capable
of the 180KiB double density standard offered in many third party Atari disk
drives.  Thus, the 1050's "double density" is usually referred to as "enhanced
density" or "dual density."

Like the 810, the 1050 drive has only one drive head, so it can only read/
write to one side of the disk.  Also like the 810, the 1050 ignores the index
hold/timing hole, so the reverse side of a disk can be accessed by inserting
the disk into the drive upside-down.

The front of the 1050 features a Power on/off switch, a Power indicator
light, and a "Disk busy" indicator light.  The rear of the unit includes two
SIO ports ("I/O Connectors"), a Power In jack, and Drive Select switches:
                     Black & White left: Drive 1
                Black right, White left: Drive 2
                    Black & White right: Drive 3
                Black left, White right: Drive 4

More features/specifications of the 1050 disk drive:
- 6507 MPU (MOS Technology MCS6507 or equivalent) @ 1MHz, C010745
- ROM, Custom 2732 FC100541
- 6810 128 x 8 bit static RAM (1KiB) (Motorola MCM6810), C014328
- 6532 PIA (MOS Technology 6532 RAM-I/O-Timer (RIOT) or equivalent), C010750
- Western Digital WD2793 Floppy Disk Controller (FDC) @ 1MHz, FC100542
   - Late production units (fall 1985) substituted:
     Western Digital WD2797 FDC, FC100817
      - These units require 1050 ROM Rev L and do not work with earlier 1050
        ROM versions.
- Media used is the same as for the Atari 810.

                                   Single Density       "Double Density"
                                    (Read/Write)          (Read/Write)
- Tracks per surface                     40                    40
- Tracks per inch                        48 TPI                48 TPI
- Recording density (Track 39, max)   2,878 BPI             5,757 BPI
- Flux density (Track 39, max)        5,757 FCI             5,757 FCI
- Encoding method                        FM                   MFM
- Capacity unformatted
    o Per track                       3,382 bytes           6,510 bytes
    o Per surface                   135,280 bytes         260,400 bytes
- Capacity formatted
    o Sectors per track                  18                    26
    o Bytes per sector                  128 bytes             128 bytes
    o Bytes per track                 2,304 bytes           3,328 bytes
    o Bytes per surface              92,160 bytes         133,120 bytes
- Transfer rate                     125,000 bit/s           250,000 bit/s
- Read/Write head                         1                     1
- Write protect sensor                  Yes                   Yes
- Track 00 sensor                       Yes                   Yes
- Rotational speed                      288 RPM               288 RPM
- Rotational speed accuracy                 +/-3%                 +/-3%
- Average latency                       110 milliseconds      110 milliseconds
- Access time
    o Track to track (max)               40 milliseconds       40 milliseconds
    o Head settling (max)                30 milliseconds       30 milliseconds
    o Motor start (max)                1000 milliseconds     1000 milliseconds
- Power Consumption
    Standby: 1.5 watts (maximum)
    Operating: 30 watts (maximum)
    Start Up: 50 watts (maximum)

The 1050 drive features a horizontal slot with latch bar door mechanism.
To complete the insertion of a disk, turn the latch bar clockwise ninety
degrees.  To release the disk, turn the latch counterclockwise.

1050 industrial design (case): Tom Palecki

The 1050 disk drive is used with an external 9 volt AC transformer power
supply rated for at least 50 watts; shipped with Atari CA017964.

The 1050 was made for Atari in Singapore by Tandon (S) Pte. Ltd. from May 1983
to December 1984 (very common), in Hong Kong by Atari-Wong Co. from November
1984 to February 1985 (fairly rare), and again in Singapore by Tandon (S) Pte.
Ltd. from October 1985 to December 1985 (also fairly rare).

Several different 1050 ROM (Atari part FC100541) versions have been documented
by Atari users, with no practical differences among them.  1983 units shipped
with Rev J, 1984 Tandon units shipped with Rev K, 1984-1985 Hong Kong units
shipped with an alternate version of Rev K, and 1985 Tandon units shipped with
Rev L.  See: http://atariage.com/forums/topic/156462-1050-roms/?p=3580891

1983 production units shipped with DOS 2.0S and in North America only, units
produced winter 1984 to winter 1985 shipped (worldwide) with DOS 3, and units
produced fall 1985 shipped with DOS 2.5.

Manuals:
- Atari 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Guide C061509 (6 pages)
- Atari 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Guide C024321 (international; 37 pages)
- Atari DOS 2.5: 1050 Disk Drive Owner's Manual C072033
- Atari 1050 Disk Drive Field Service Manual FD100330
    - REV. 01  October, 1983
    - REV. 03  October, 1985

Third-party upgrades for the 1050 (grouped by "family")
=================================
Happy 1050 Enhancement, by Happy Computers, Inc. (Richard Adams), 1984
- Board includes a 6502 microprocessor and a RAM buffer:
   Up to 36 sectors (SD mode: 2 tracks / 4608 bytes)
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- "Happy" Warp Speed standard high speed reads disks up to 500% times faster
   than standard 1050 with any software; supporting software also supports
   buffered fast write with verify
- Navigate/edit/create nonstandard format disks
- Warp Speed Software disk included (1983- ), contains Warp Speed DOS
   (modified Atari DOS 2.0S), Diagnostic, Sector Copier, Happy Backup, Happy
   Compactor, Multi Drive Happy Backup, Tracer
- (Rev 2 ROM) ICD US Doubler emulation for UltraSpeed software compatibility
- IBMXFR IBM Transfer Program included, 1988- (Warp Speed Software v. 7.10)
- Software sold separately by Happy Computers:
    - Happy Customizer Program (create non-standard disks track-by-track)
    - Warp Speed DOS XL, including under cartridge, under ROM and Axlon RAM
      versions (modified DOS XL by Optimized Systems Software (OSS))
    - TOP DOS version 1.5, by Eclipse Software
- Software sold separately:
    - Happy Version Archiver/Editor, by Spartan Software of Minnesota, 1984
       - Also marketed by B&C ComputerVisions as: Scan-It!/1050 Happy, 1987
    - Fuzzy/Phantom Sector Maker, by CSS, 1986 (Antic 9/86p48)
    - Archiver Enhancement, by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1987
       - Super Archiver/Editor 3.0 and The Archiver Tracer
    - Happy Doubler, by Innovative Concepts, 1989
       - US Doubler compatible/UltraSpeed capable (software solution)
       - Ability to configure drives as D5: through D8:
- Hardware upgrades for Happy 1050 Enhancement:
    o Happy 1050 Controller, by Happy Computers, Inc., 1986
      - Hardware switch to select Happy Fast or Slow mode
      - Hardware switch to control write protection, with LED indicator
      - Write to reverse side of disks without punching holes
    o Imitator Controller, by Innovative Concepts, 1987
      - Hardware switch to select Happy Fast or Slow mode
      - 3-position switch for write protect mode:
          1) As normal, 2) Do not write, and 3) Will write to any disk
      - Two-color LED for write-protect status
    o IC Chip, by Innovative Concepts, 1988-11-11
      - US Doubler compatible/UltraSpeed capable (replacement Happy ROM)
Happy 1050 Maximizer, by Happy Computers, Inc.
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- Happy 1050 Controller upgrade compatible
- Maximizer to Enhancement Upgrade available from Happy Computers
High Speed Board 1050, by Irata Verlag, 1985 (West Germany)
- Happy 1050 Enhancement clone
1050 Lazer Enhancement, from Utility House (1986) (UK)
- Happy 1050 Enhancement clone
- Shipped with The Lazer Drive Supercharger software from Utility House
1050 IS Plate, by Innovated Software (Robert Perry), 1986
- Add-on board includes 6502 and 16KiB RAM buffer.  Plugs into 6507 socket.
- Happy 1050 Enhancement compatible/near-clone
- Emulation of: IS Doubler, US Doubler, standard 1050, Archiver/810
   (UltraSpeed and Archiver software compatible)
- System supports up to 16 drives
- Shipped with 2-sided disk including IS Doubler/US Doubler emulation, high
   speed disk copiers (standard and 130XE versions), file loader, custom disk
   formatter (including bad sectors), track tracer
    - Late units: Software instead built-in on ROM
- Sold separately for use with early units: ISP Gremlin Grabber
- Most units shipped with Gremlin Grammer II or Gremlin Grabber III
Klone, by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1986 (USA)
- Happy 1050 Enhancement clone
- Happy Warp Speed Software (pre-7.0) included
Klone II, by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1987 (USA)
- Happy 1050 Enhancement clone
- Happy Warp Speed Software (7.0) included
Copy Card 7.0, by ????, year ???? (Europe)
- Happy 1050 Enhancement compatible/near-clone
Hyper Drive, by Chaos! Computers (UK), 1994
- Happy 1050 Enhancement clone
- Shipped with software package (Ver. II): Hyper Fast DOS, Hyper Sector
   Copier, Hyper Back-Up Sytem, US Doubler Emulation, HyperCompaction,
   Diagnostic Tester, Archiver/810 Emulation, Multi Drive Back-Up
- See review & ad, Page 6's New Atari User #75 pp. 30-37, 39

US Doubler, by ICD, 1984
- ROM replacement chip and 128 byte RAM chip; some drives require moving two
   jumpers also
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- "UltraSpeed" standard high speed "54K baud" via sector skewing; supporting
   software required for high speed (initially: SpartaDOS)
- Many units shipped with ICD SpartaDOS
SuperMax, by Super Products
- US Doubler compatible/UltraSpeed capable
- Add-on board, switch between standard and replacement drive ROM
IS Doubler, by Innovated Software (Robert Perry), 1985?
- US Doubler clone

Warp Drive, from Stocksoft (UK), 1986
- Add-on control board replaces two chips
- Back up including most types of bad sectors
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- Shipped with public domain backup software, double density Menu Maker
- Archiver/810 compatible (Rev 2 and up)
Super Archiver, by Computer Software Services (CSS), 1987
- Add-on board, known as: "Super Archiver Mod", "1050 Super Archiver Chip"
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- Archiver/810 compatible; US Doubler compatible/UltraSpeed capable
- Navigate/edit/create nonstandard format disks
- Included software: Super Archiver/Editor 3.0, Super Archiver (skew) 3.1,
   Super Archiver Fuzzy Sector Maker, The Archiver Tracer, Super Archiver
   Diagnostic
- Also sold without software (B&C ComputerVisions)
- Bit-Writer upgrade sold separately by CSS (1988):
    - Writes bits rather than sectors, for increased copy capabilities
Super Archiver II, by CSS, 1988
- Enhanced density version of CSS Super Archiver
- Sold complete or as a software-only upgrade for CSS Super Archiver
- Software: Super Archiver/Editor 3.03 (enhanced density), Super Archiver
   Fuzzy Sector Maker (enhanced density), The Archiver Tracer, Super Archiver
   Diagnostic

Reproducer, by Gardner Computing, 1984
- Navigate/edit/create nonstandard format disks
- Software included
Density Doubler 1050, by Duplicating Technologies (DT), 1986
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- Whole track buffering (18 sectors / 8KiB) "up to three times faster"
1050 Duplicator, by Duplicating Technologies (DT), 1986
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- Whole track buffering (18 sectors / 8KiB) "up to three times faster"
- Navigate/edit/create nonstandard format disks (including enhanced density)
- Includes copying software
- Sources (Jim Patchell):
   http://www.oldcrows.net/~patchell/atari/duplicator.html
- CheerUp Upgrade, by Happy Computers, Inc., 1987
    - Changes 1050 Duplicator to Happy 1050 Enhancement software compatible

1050 Turbo, by Bernhard Engl for Gerald Engl Computertechnik, 1985-1988
- Hardware includes replacement ROM (no microprocessor; no RAM buffer)
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- "Turbodrive" standard high speed 68200 bit/s ("70000 baud") via sector
   skewing; high speed supporting software NOT necessary for high speed,
   instead supporting software is loaded from drive ROM
- Software on ROM: Backup Machine II, Magic Formatter, Maintenance Box
- http://www.strotmann.de/~cas/Infothek/1050Turbo/
Top Drive 1050, by Ataserw (1987 or 1988)
- 1050 Turbo clone (ROM by P.Z. Karen, brand of of LDW)
- Software: TURBO DOS ("TUR-DOS") disk or cartridge.  Known versions:
    - TURBO DOS (c) 1989 ver 2.5 (disk?)
    - TUR DOS - (c) 1990 rev 4.0 (cartridge)
      wszelkie prawa JS & ATASERW Tychy
- Available upgrade project converts to Happy 1050 Enhancement compatible
    - Details here: http://preview.tinyurl.com/npla4t6

Speedy 1050 (Mini-Speedy), by Compy-Shop, 1986
- Includes 65C02 microprocessor, 8KiB RAM buffer, 8KiB program ROM space
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- "Speedy" standard high speed; supporting software required for high speed
- Speedy 1050N: Internal add-on
- Speedy 1050NE: External add-on
- Speedy 1050T: Internal add-on with (external) track display
- Speedy 1050TE: External add-on with track display
    - Above models: Optional hardware switches for write-protect and
      fast/slow mode control
- Mini-Speedy S: Internal add-on with 8KiB Sector Copy program in ROM
- Mini-Speedy D: Internal add-on with 8KiB mini-Bibo-DOS in ROM
- Mini-Speedy DS: Internal add-on with both Sector Copy and mini-Bibo-DOS
                   programs in ROM, hardware switch selectable
- Super-Speedy prototype: equivalent to Mini-Speedy DS plus track display
   and 192KiB RAM buffer, requiring special software support
- System disk includes: Speedy Test, Sector Copier.  Mini-Speedy system disk
   also includes: Speedy Backup, Speed Init, DiskMapper, HSS Copier
- Sold separately by Martin Reitershan Computertechnik:
    - Turbo-Speedy DC -- Upgrade replaces mini-Bibo-Dos with the company's
      Turbo-DOS XL/XE, also new firmware; 24KiB ROM space total
Mega Speedy (Guus Assmann & Matthias Reichl, 2014)
- Out-of-the-box it supports the original 1050, Speedy, Super Speedy,
   a new Mega Speedy, 1050 Turbo and 1050 Duplicator modes.
- Hardware can also emulate Happy, US Doubler, Super Archiver, and Supermax,
   but you need to provide the ROMs for these upgrades yourself.
- More info: http://www.realdos.net/MegaSpeedy.html
- Software and firmware: http://www.horus.com/~hias/megaspeedy/
- Documentation: http://www.realdos.net/MegaDocs.html

Tygrys 1050, by Marek Bojarski of Navitron (1988)
- Version 1.0: US Doubler clone?
- Version 2.0: US Doubler and 1050 Turbo compatibility?

TOMS Multi Drive 1050 (1990)
- Adds single-sided, double density (180KiB) operation (Percom compatible)
- Adds SS-DD "IBM format": 40 tracks, 9 sectors of 512 bytes = 180KiB
- Compatibilities: Happy 1050 Enhancement, 1050 Turbo, 1050 Duplicator
- Software: TOMS Copier, Track Master, Tracer, Get Track, Weak Writer,
   Bad Formatter, Track Writer, IBM DOS, IBM 360, Turbo Drive Kopier

Other:
-----
Protector, by Computer Software Serices (CSS), for 810/1050/Indus GT, 1983
- Includes hardware and software
- Bad sector generator; also move/rearrange data, scramble directories
Silencer, by CSS, for 810/1050, 1984
- Eliminates loud drive sounds when reading bad sectors
- Write to both sides of any disk without notching disks
Over-Write [1050 version], by Computer Support, 1985
- Write to side 2 of any disk without notching out a hole in the disk
Bad Sector, by Computer Support, 1985
- Write bad sectors to any diskette; can backup some protected disks
Write-Right, by Duplicating Technologies, 1986
- Write to both sides of any disk without notching disks
Electronic Phantom Sector Maker, by CSS, 1987 (Antic 9/87p28)
- Installs into any drive, no other modification needed
    - Can be combined with other upgrades including Happy 1050 Enhancement,
      Archiver, and Duplicator
- Make fuzzy/phantom sectors or fuzz portions of sectors
- Find/Display valid data, CRC errors and phantom sectors
- Deluxe version: Allows you to switch between CRC and phantom sectors
   without having to readjust hardware module each time
IC1050 Controller, by Innovative Concepts, 1989
- 3-position switch for write protect mode:
     1) As normal, 2) Do not write, and 3) Will write to any disk
- Two-color LED for write-protect status
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